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显露国际范儿的汉语教材

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发表于 2015-5-20 21:25:50 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

汉语教材几经更迭
  由北京大学教授邓懿主编的《汉语教科书》,作为新中国成立后第一部以汉语拼音为基础的对外汉语教材,1958年进入市场;上世纪60年代出现的全套12册的《当代对英汉语教材》被奉为经典,甚至沿用至今;随后,《基础汉语》、《汉语课本》等带有上世纪70年代鲜明时代特征的教材相继步入人们的视野;如今,走进书店,种类繁多的国际汉语教材简直让人目不暇接。
  以系统的语言教学体系为纲,语法和词汇知识紧密连接,语言知识服务于课本内容,是许多国际汉语教材共同的特点。但时移势易,任何一种语言教材,注定都会过时,其承载的语言文化知识体系也会部分地成为边缘知识,淡出人们的视野。这就对对外汉语教学领域的相关人士提出了更高的要求:持续更新教材编写,赶上时代新要求。
  文化差异不可小觑
  在今年的巴黎语言博览会上,中国国家汉办推出《国际汉语教材编写指南》平台,希望在全球范围内推广和宣传汉语教学标准化资源,这让我们联想到“国别化”汉语教材的新理念。
  目前国内很多教材的词汇表、语法知识,除了拥有汉语本身的说明外,还配有英语、日语、法语等主要语种的释义,但是翻译质量参差不齐。如今以小语种为母语的国家和地区的汉语学习者越来越多,这些生硬粗糙的外文翻译没有原汁原味地传递对应的汉语寓意,妨碍了外国汉语学习者的领会。中国社会科学院语言研究所副研究员唐正大针对此情况,结合自己的对外汉语教学经验,提出了相应的对策:“泰国易三仓教会学校的初中部使用的汉语教材《跟我学汉语》,其解释、说明部分(即所谓的‘元语言’)是英文,这让教学的汉语老师和学习的泰国学生都感到很不适应。在这种情况下,应该考虑在初、中级对泰汉语教材编写中适当使用泰语作为‘元语言’。”

  对外汉语教材以推广和传播中国传统文化为使命,同时也向世界展示当代中国的风采。由此思路出发,近年来,一些新编汉语教材注重真实展现中国人的生活。在罗马尼亚孔子学院任教的汉语教师志愿者徐秀介绍,她正在使用的教材《长城汉语》就比较好。这些配有光盘、动画的汉语教材逐步改变了从前刻板的课文内容,设身处地地站在外国汉语学习者的角度,还原实际对话的情境。
  专用教材前景更广
  “大一统”的教材编写思路早已不适用于当今这个飞速发展的时代。诸多新编国际汉语教材都打破了“教材就是一本用故事讲语法和词汇的书”的传统概念,如俄罗斯推出的《你好,中国》多媒体读物,孟加拉国推出的首本中、孟、英三语汉语本土教材等。对外经贸大学中文学院教授唐兴全认为,未来的国际汉语教材发展方向应该是通用型教材和专用型教材编写并行,并且更重视专用型教材的开发。一方面要开发专门针对具体国家和地区的汉语教材,比如面向北美地区的《中文听说读写》、面向波兰的《高等学校基础教程》、面向意大利的《汉语》等,另一方面对学习者群体也要进行细分,以适用于专门用途,比如商务汉语教材、中医汉语教材等。
  伴随着中国国际交往的不断扩大,中文的国际化呈现出加速发展的趋势。内容贴合生活、释义接近本土、形式趋于多样、分类更加细化,是未来国际汉语教材编写的方向。结合在对外汉语教学第一线工作的教师的体会和建议,加上国内汉语专家、百科知识专家和精通目标国家语言的专家的通力合作,国际汉语教材一定能不断推陈出新,形成百花齐放的局面。
近些年,全球“汉语热”持续升温,中国的汉语教材如水银泻地一般出现在世界上越来越多的地方。各国汉语粉丝对汉语教材的需求越来越大,趣向也越来越多。在不久前落幕的英国伦敦书展上,一套新型国际汉语试听教材《中国好人》,在全球首发并受到好评。这部以“郭明义”这个普通中国人的平凡故事为主要内容的教材,让更多的外国民众对真实的中国人和中国文化有了一个更直观的了解,同时也启发我们不断开拓汉语教材种类、创新汉语教学模式的思路。

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