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Mandarin Chinese

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发表于 2015-5-19 10:05:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Mandarin (Listeni/ˈmændᵊrɪn/; simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is also referred to as the "northern dialect(s)". When the Mandarin group is taken as one language, as is often done in academic literature, it has more native speakers (nearly a billion) than any other language.

A northeastern-dialect speaker and a southwestern-dialect speaker may have difficulty communicating except through the standard language. Nonetheless, there is much less variation across the huge Mandarin area than between the non-Mandarin varieties of southeast China. This is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the relatively recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas.

The capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects very influential. Some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language. Standard Chinese, which is also referred to as "Mandarin", is the official language of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China and one of the four official languages of Singapore. It is also one of the most frequently used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally.
The English word "mandarin" (from Portuguese mandarim, from Malay menteri, from Sanskrit mantrin, meaning "minister or counsellor") originally meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires.[4][5] Since their native varieties were often mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a koiné based on various northern varieties. When Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it "Mandarin", from its Chinese name Guānhuà (官话/官話), or "language of the officials".[6]

In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, which is often called simply "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the official language of the Republic of China (ROC/Taiwan), and one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It also functions as the language of instruction in the PRC and in Taiwan. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name "Chinese". Chinese speakers refer to the modern standard language as

Pǔtōnghuà (普通话/普通話, literally "common speech") in China,
Guóyǔ (國語, literally "national language") in Taiwan, or
Huáyǔ (华语/華語) in Malaysia, Singapore and Philippines,
but not as Guānhuà.[7]

This article uses the term "Mandarin" in the sense used by linguists, referring to the diverse group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China, which Chinese linguists call Guānhuà. The alternative term Běifānghuà (北方话/北方話), or "Northern dialect(s)", is used less and less among Chinese linguists. By extension, the term "Old Mandarin" is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty.

Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of "Mandarin" (or so-called "Northern dialects") in a broader sense. Within Chinese social or cultural discourse, there is not a common "Mandarin" identity based on language; rather, there are strong regional identities centred on individual dialects because of the wide geographical distribution and cultural diversity of their speakers. Speakers of forms of Mandarin other than the standard typically refer to the variety they speak by a geographic name—for example Sichuan dialect, Hebei dialect or Northeastern dialect, all being regarded as distinct from the standard language.

As with all other varieties of the Chinese language, there is significant dispute as to whether Mandarin is a language or a dialect. See Varieties of Chinese for more on this issue.[citation needed]
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 楼主| 发表于 2015-5-19 10:52:55 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 aaa 于 2015-5-19 10:55 编辑

Mandarin,即普通话,又作Mandarin Chinese,意即现代标准汉语,又称国语、华语,指通行于中国以及海外华人的通用语言。
普通话以北京语音为标准音,以北方话为基础方言,以典范的现代白话文著作为语法规范。普通话作为官方、教学、媒体等标准语,是中华人民共和国的通用语言[1] ,是新加坡共和国四种官方语言之一。Mandarin这个英文单词最早是从葡萄牙文(Mandarim)一词发展而来的。而Mandarim是从葡萄牙文的动词mandar来的,意思是指挥、管理。
该英文词语的汉语释义有:n.普通话;(旧时)中国政府的高级官员;柑橘 adj.官僚的;中国式服装的;过分文雅的
中文名普通话
外文名Mandarin Chinese
官方名现代标准汉语或    称国语、华语
基    础现代北方汉语的语法和北京话语音
词    源印度梵文曼怛罗

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在英语中,通常用Mandarin Chinese表示汉语普通话,Chinese作为“汉语/中国语”的意思不仅包括汉语的其他方言,也包括其他少数民族的语言,因此通常用Mandarin。此外,Mandarin Chinese的含义还偏向于指汉语中的一个体系——官话,而不是单纯的“普通话”。[2]


英国人称呼中国的官为Mandarin,该词来源于印度梵文曼怛罗,经由马来文与葡萄牙文,辗转传入英文。
英文中用Mandarin(曼达林)一词来表示中国官僚,源自于葡萄牙语中的mandarim(早期拼写mandarin)。早在皮莱资使团被囚禁后,被囚葡国人写下的信札中,葡萄牙语中就已广泛使用Mandarim一词。(这些信札是葡萄牙关于中国最早的报道之一,可能成书于1524年)。[3] 在Castanheda的《História do descobrimento e conquista da ndia pelos portugueses》中[4] ,十六世纪末经澳门进入中国大陆的利玛窦也在葡萄牙人中推广使用了该词。

有许多人把葡语中的这个词想成mandador(指挥者)或者mandar,源自拉丁文mandare[5] 然而,现代字典同意葡萄牙人是从马来语menteri(朝臣、部长)一词中借来的,马来语menteri一词又是从梵语mantrin (天城体: 〉) (意为部长–语源学上来讲又相关于"曼怛罗").[6-7]   引根据马来西亚Ungku Abdul Aziz教授,这个词源于马六甲苏丹国期间住在马六甲的葡萄牙人试图会见中国政府高官,并用马来语标记“朝臣、部长”意思的Menteri一词来代指中国的“大官”。但是由于葡萄牙人不谙马来语,把“Menteri”的音加了一个“n”,发成了“Mandarin”。[8]
在十六世纪“曼达林”这个词还没有普遍使用时,在欧洲人旅行者圈中“Loutea”一词也可以代指中国文官 (该词拼写各异)。如,在Galeote Pereira1548至1553年的中国旅行记中(1565年在欧洲出版)Loutea一词广泛使用;或者,在Gaspar da Cruz所写的《Treatise of China》(1569年在欧洲出版)中,Louthia一词广泛使用。葡萄牙荷兰殖民史专家C. R. Boxer解释道:本词来源于中文常见的“老爷”一词(汉语拼音:lǎoye;厦门话:ló-tia;泉州话:lāu-tia)[9-10]   胡安·冈萨雷斯·德·门多萨所著的《大中华帝国史》(1585年)也是如此称呼中国文官的。《大中华帝国史》借鉴了Galeote Pereira以及Gaspar da Cruz两公的文字,并成为十六世纪晚期欧洲人了解中国标准参考书[11] 另外,《利玛窦中国札记》记载了Lauye和Lautie两种发音,见右图。
在西方,“曼达林”一词一般与“士大夫”这个概念相关,士大夫一般会吟诗作文,读儒入仕。
“曼达林”一词又可以代指标准的北方中文,因为明、清的官员用该方言。该词是在明代就开始使用的中文“官话”一词的翻译。欧洲早期作者如利玛窦将“官话”一词写作Quonhua,以符合利玛窦时代的转写系统,耶稣会在利玛窦逝世后多年都沿用此转写系统。[12]
普通话和北京话的区别
普通话是“以北京语音为标准音,以北方话为基础方言,以典范的现代白话文著作为语法规范”的现代汉民族共同语。这是在1955年的全国文字改革会议和现代汉语规范问题学术会议上确定的。这个定义实质上从语音、词汇、语法三个方面提出了普通话的标准,详细分析如下:
“以北京语音为标准音”,指的是以北京话的语音系统为标准,并不是把北京话一切读法全部照搬,普通话并不等于北京话。北京话仍有许多土音,比如:老北京人把连词“和(he)”说成“han”,把“蝴蝶(hudie)”说成“hudiěr”,把“告诉(gaosu)”说成“gaosong”,这些土音,使其他方言区的人难以接受。另外,北京话里还有异读音现象,例如“侵略”一词,有人念“qīn lue”、也有人念成 “qǐnlue”;“附近”一词,有人念“fujin”,也有人念成“fǔjin”,这也给普通话的推广带来许多麻烦。另外,北京话儿化音很多,如:地—地儿 ,字—字儿 ,天桥—天桥儿。等等,很多很多,普通话吸收了一部分,但由于北京话儿化音过多,也不能全部吸收。从1956年开始,国家对北京土话的字音进行了多次审订,制定了普通话的标准读音。因此,普通话的语音标准,当前应该以1985年公布的《普通话异读词审音表》以及2005年版的《现代汉语词典》为规范。
就词汇标准来看,普通话“以北方话为基础方言”,指的是以广大北京话地区普遍通行的说法为准,同时也要从其他方言吸取所需要的词语。北京话词语中也有许多契丹各地的土语,例如北京人把“傍晚”说成“晚半晌”,把“斥责”说成“呲儿”,把“吝啬”说成“抠门儿”;北京不少地区将“玉米”称为“苞米”,将“肥皂”称为“胰子”,将“馒头”称为“馍馍”。所以,不能把所有北京话的词汇都作为普通话的词汇,要有一个选择。有的非北京话地区的外来词汇有特殊的意义和表达力,北京话里没有相应的同义词,这样的词语可以吸收到普通话词汇中来。例如“搞”、“垃圾”、“尴尬”、“噱头”等词已经在书面语中经常出现,早已加入了普通话词汇行列。普通话所选择的词汇,一般都是流行较广而且早就用于书面上的词语。国家语委正在组织人力编写《现代汉语规范词典》,将对普通话词汇进一步作出规范。

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 楼主| 发表于 2015-5-19 10:53:14 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 aaa 于 2015-5-19 10:56 编辑

普通话的语法标准是“以典范的现代白话文著作为语法规范”,这个标准包括四个方面意思:“典范”就是排除不典范的现代白话文著作作为语法规范;“白话文”就是排除文言文;“现代白话文”就是排除五四以前的早期白话文;“著作”就是指普通话的书面形式,它建立在口语基础上,但又不等于一般的口语,而是经过加工、提炼的语言。
语音特征
与印欧语系相比,普通话语音有鲜明的特点:
⒈音节结构简单,声音响亮。普通话中,一个音节最多只有4个音素,其中,发音响亮的元音占优势,是一般音节中不可缺少的成分。一个音节内可以连续出现几个元音(最多三个),如huai(坏),但普通话音节中没有复辅音,即没有像英语lightning(闪电)、俄语Встреча(遇见)那样几个辅音连在一起的现象。
⒉音节界限分明,节律感强。汉语的音节一般都是由声母、韵母、声调三部分组成,声母在前,韵母紧随其后,再带一个贯穿整个音节的声调,便有了鲜明的音节界限。从音素分析的角度观察,辅音和元音互相间隔而有规律地出现,给人周而复始的感觉,因而极便于切分音节。
⒊声调抑扬顿挫,富于音乐性。普通话声调变化高低分明,高、扬、转、降区分明显,听起来就像音乐一样动听。
普通话音系
能够区分意义的音素叫音位。例如:“布bu”和“铺pu”,“变bian”和“骗pian”,“标biāo”和“飘piāo”就是靠b、p两个音素来区分的,b、p就是音位。
人类能发出的音是多种多样的,也可以说是无限的,但某种语言或方言选择一定的声音来区别意义是有限的。在某种语言或方言里,这些能区分意义的音素互相对立,互相区别,而又互相联系,互相制约,构成某种语言或方言的语音系统,简称音系。
从声韵调系统来看,普通话有声母21个,韵母39个,声调4类。
声母 下面所列的22个辅音,除ng不作声母外,其余21个都作声母。
辅音音素:
塞音b p d t g k
塞擦音z c zh ch j q
擦音 f s sh r x h
鼻音m n ng
边音l
韵母 39个韵母按它们的结构分为单韵母、复韵母、鼻韵母。
单韵母10个,上列10个元音都作单韵母。
舌面元音:前元音 i衣 u 迂 e
央元音 a啊
后元音o喔 e婀 u乌
舌尖元音:舌尖前 -i(zi资 ci疵 si韵母)
舌尖后 -i(zhi知 chi吃 shi诗 ri日的韵母)
卷舌元音:er儿
这10个元音在构成音节时有选择性。舌尖前元音-i只跟z c s拼合构成音节,舌尖后元音-i和zh ch sh r拼合构成音节。e、er能自成音节、不直接跟辅音相拼。其他元音既能跟辅音相拼,也能自成音节。
辅音音素中的m、n、ng三个鼻音,在某些方言里可以独立成音节。比如,有些地方称“妈妈”为“m ma”。称“你”为“n”,称“五”为“ng”。普通话中有叹词“喑欠 hm”、“哼hng”等纯辅音音节。这是个别的现象。
复元音和声调复韵母13个,由两个或三个元音复合而成。有:
ai ei ao ou
ia ie ua uo ue
iao iou uai uei
鼻韵母16个,由元音和鼻辅音n或ng复合而成。有:
an en ang eng ong
ian in lang ing iong
uan uen uang ueng
uan un
声调4类
⒈阴平念高平调(调值55)。如:飞妈书家音乒;
⒉阳平念高升调(调值35)。如:池河神床笛重;
⒊上声念低降升曲折调(调值214)(但在句中多读半上声21,两上声字连读时,前字一般变为阳平)。如:马把始可果表;
⒋去声念高降调(调值51)。如:电灭醉亚进贡。
音素系统和声韵调系统,都可以用来说明汉语的语音结构。这两套系统可以结合,但不能混淆。比如:声母是由辅音充当的,但辅音不等于声母,因为辅音除作声母外,还可以作韵母的一部分--韵尾。韵母虽然主要是由元音充当的,但韵母不等于元音,因为韵母里面还有辅音。
汉语和其他地方言音系相比较,普通话音系比较简单,它的声母、韵母、声调,一般来说,比其他方言要少,因而比较容易掌握。
在世界语言之林中,汉语属于汉藏语系。跟英、法等印欧语系的语言相比较,汉语语音的最大特点是:声调区别意义。
普通话语音的特点是:声母除舌尖后擦音r、鼻音n,m 、边音l外,无浊音。韵母多复元音,鼻韵母有前后之分。另外,普通话没有声母的清浊对立,没有入声(音节尾唯闭塞音p,t,k及演化出的喉塞音?),尖团合流(不分尖团),声调较少,调式简单。另外有轻声和儿化韵。
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